International asylum policy was set by the European Union in 1951, in Geneva. According to the law, the immigrants are not allowed to seek asylum because of being poor (European Commission, 2009). As such, all the refugees are supposed to be taken care of by the country of their first arrival. What is more, they may be refused to go to the desired country in order to seek asylum. The second EU's policy regards the boarders; most of the EU member-states have so far engaged Frontex to manage their borders. The policy mandates Frontex to conduct border patrols, provide humanitarian supplies, and offer medical assistance to the immigrants.
Secondly, the EU has initiated the use of development aids in order to manage migration issues. For instance, the EU offers development aid to the African and other poor regions that serve as the origin of most immigrants. Such a development aid is offered by the EU in collaboration with its member-states in form of official development aid (ODA). The third EU's policy on immigration is an Immigration PACT that is designed to stop the "mass amnesties for illegal immigrants in the EU" region (European Commission, 2009). The policy is owed to the thought that mass amnesty on illegal immigrants motivates a large number of people to migrate to Europe illegally.
The EU's Free Movement and Enlargement Policy have since accorded all immigrants from the European member-states to move and stay in any EU country freely without being in possession of either a visa or a residence permit (European Commission, 2009). According to the Free Movement and Enlargement policy, any national of the EU member-states are allowed to migrate to any of the EU states and live as an immigrate for three months. Thereafter, they are expected to get employment, pursue their studies, or be independent financially (Brady, 2008).
The EU has also employed the use of justice and home affairs (JHA) policy to help and define the level of corporation between the member-states and the immigrants (European Commission, 2009). Through the JHA, the EU has stipulated measures that are followed while handing asylum, border control and crime. On the other hand, the Lisbon Treaty of December 2007 allows the qualified majority to debate and decide on issues regarding the asylum, immigration and integration of immigrants in the destination countries (Triandafyllidou & Fropas, 2007). However, through the Lisbon Treaty, all the EU member-states have been accorded the authority to decide on the number of immigrants to allow and further incorporate into their countries at any given time.
The Impact of Immigration Policies on Bulgaria
Since Bulgaria got an access to the EU, it has become a destination state for the immigrants as a result of the EU's immigration policy of free movement and accommodation of immigrates by any EU member state (Triandafyllidou & Fropas, 2007). However, initially, Bulgaria served as a transit country. Therefore, this situation has impacted Bulgaria in two ways. Firstly, getting an access to the EU immigration policy exposed Bulgaria' labor market to brain drain resulting from constant influx of skilled or unskilled immigrants (Triandafyllidou & Fropas, 2007). Secondly, the policy has exerted pressure on Bulgaria's population, leading to the demographic crisis of the country.
The EU's Wide Immigration Concerns
The first immigration concern of the European Union is illegal immigration into other countries of the European Union. For instance, the immigrants from the countries such as North Africa and Morocco have recently migrated into Spain illegally without following the right and legal procedures that immigrants are expected to undergo before they finally get into the EU country (European Commission, 2009).
The second immigration concern facing the European Union is forced deportation of people who live in the European Union countries illegally. Nowadays, Germany practices forced deportation of illegal immigrants (Triandafyllidou & Fropas, 2007). For instance, Otto Schily, a former Federal Minister of the Interior Germany, is threatening to deport about 500, 000 people that are considered to be illegal immigrants. Although these immigrants are under obligation to leave the country, Otto Schily is unable to deport them.
Similarly, the European Union is facing the problem of immigrants' trade that is being conducted by the organized gangs for profit-making (European Commission, 2009). The report shows that organized gangs are forcing young women and children to work. Such immigrants are usually transported in all parts of Europe using crude means. They usually cannot be detected and are eventually forced into either prostitution or forced labor (Triandafyllidou & Fropas, 2007). Human trafficking provides organized gangs with funds, which are further used for terror activities.
The European Union has further asserted that illegal immigration has negatively impacted the economy of various countries through brain drain. Such a situation is owed to the fact that most illegal immigrants end up employed by different organizations within the EU countries, where they live but do not pay taxes (Triandafyllidou & Fropas, 2007). As such, the Treasury receives less money from the tax. At the same time, immigration causes brain drain. It is a process of migration of skilled personnel from their home countries, which in turn creates a gap in the local market.
Possible Solutions for Immigration Issues/Concerns
The concern of brain drain and economic depletion can be resolved by adopting a "national immigration and visa regimes"; this could promote a circular migration (European Commission, 2009). Furthermore, it could promote a circulation of labor and allow the immigrants return to their home countries with money, skills, and ideas gained in the foreign land for the benefit and growth of their native country (Brady, 2008). Circular migrations could also be enhanced by according the immigrants sabbatical leaves.
The immigration concerns can be resolved through the integration process, which requires the EU member-states to participate at both local and international levels in ensuring that the immigrants are integrated into the destination countries effectively (European Commission, 2009). For instance, according to the agreement, the immigrants should be accorded an opportunity to learn local language, adhere to the values of destination country and return to their country at the given time.