The ancient Greek philosopher, Socrates, held that the study of human nature is important. Other ancient Greek philosophers, including Thales, held that the study of external nature, that is, the universe is important. Comment on the manner in which Marcus Aurelius or David Hume attempt to combine the two approaches.


Greek philosophers had different views and concerns in the field of philosophy. Socrates held that the major concern of all philosophy is about the human behavior. He came up with innovation that the proper subject matter of philosophy is the study of human being and his behavior. Thales another Greek Philosopher studied the universe to understand its origin and components. Further, other philosophers like Marcus Aurelius and David Hume, made interpretations combining the approaches of Socrates and Thales. The discussions below show the approaches clearly.

Socrates approach

Socrates believed that human beings form the basis of philosophy. He had an interest in the human life and condition. He argued that if the human beings want to live happy and good lives, then the choices they make need questioning. He also believed that human beings should critically think before making any choices. The truth comes about when an individual encounters questions from others. He also added people should follow certain principles and objectives for them to live happily.

Thales' approach

Thales considered the study of the universe as important in philosophy. He was one of the individuals who formed a theory about the origin of the world. He believed that not only the gods formed the universe, but also other components contributed to its origin. His theory considered understanding of natural events because of natural forces and not by the gods. Thales considered that without the cosmological and philosophical examination, difficulties might arise when trying to have an understanding of the nature and organization of the universe.

David Hume combined approach

Hume was one of the British Philosophers. He believed that human experience and nature form the basis of getting the truth. He further argues that the foundations of any logical argument include observation and experience. He agreed with the Thales theory and the idea of the existence of God as nonsensical. His explanations implied that the various fields of philosophical study and other sciences apply to study of human nature. His explanations also imply that having knowledge of human nature and the universe creates a better living to human beings.

Marcus Aurelius combined approach

Aurelius considered the universe as one living being with one substance and one soul. He observed that all living things have a reference to one perception, which is the universe. He observed the way all things acted with one movement and their cooperation to cause all the existing things in the universe. He interpreted that the intelligence of the universe as social and that it has made the inferior things due to existence of the superior things. According to Aurelius, all things possess a bond, which interconnects them to form the universe with one God prevailing. Aurelius believed that all intelligent animals have a common reason and one truth. He also interpreted that the acts of rational animals like human beings occurs due to nature and for a reason.


It appears that both the philosophical study of human nature and the universe are important. Therefore, all the approaches explained above appear important in the study of philosophy. They contribute to the current studies of philosophy since they contain the foundation theories of philosophy. Moreover, they contribute to the importance of questioning and critical thinking of human beings in their daily lives.

2- In the Destiny model, much stress is placed on the principle of unity among people. The movie American History X is characterized by violence and strife. Elaborate on the ways in which many of the characters in the movie could have benefited from exploring the Destiny model with its emphasis on unity.


Destiny model refers to the universal unity, for example, among people of different races, cultures or class. It consists of four modes, but in the discussion below the relevant one, the ethnic mode that deals with various ethnic groups forms its basis. The ethnic mode of Destiny mode allows students of different ethnic group to value their culture identity. Through this member of each group acquires the ability to appreciate the experiences of those from other ethnic groups. Ethnic mode promotes unity among the members of the ethnic groups. This mode informs all the members of different ethnic or cultural groups that they can seek unity among themselves without the historical differences obstructing them. Therefore, ethnic mode gives an ideal way of discouraging racism and ethnicity among people.

The destiny model shows that people can maintain unity among themselves through dialogue when problems and conflicts arise. Instead of solving the issues in a violent and unpleasant way, they understand one another's differences that led to the conflict and make a basis for seeking a solution. Lack of ability to understand the differences increases hatred among the people and therefore disrupts the prevailing unity. Racism and hatred form the major cause of disunity among the people especially between the African Americans and the whites. Ethnicity also forms the other major cause of violence and struggle for peace and unity in many places of the world.

The movie American History X displays an example of a case where disunity prevails among its characters. The characters in the movie come from different ethnic groups, different language, different races, and social differences. It consists of black, white, prisoners who had been involved in violence that causes disunity and harm to others. The acts of racism clearly show in the whole movie. There is hatred among the different races considered in the movie. The movie therefore creates an example of a case that requires application of the destiny model of unity.

Many of the characters especially the main actors like Derek and his brother depicts acts of hatred against others. He belonged to a white supremacist gang that committed racial violence.He also shows acts of hatred when in school. The destiny model would have benefited them if they had knowledge about it. The model discourages hatred to others just because they have different color. They would have maintained unity in the town and school if they had explored the destiny model. The knowledge of the model would make them realize that their difference in color makes them different.

In the prison, the acts of racism clearly come out among the inmates from different races. Derik joins the group formed by the whites to avoid harassment from the black and Hispanic inmates. The group hated the other inmates due to racial differences. The inmates required application of the destiny model of unity to maintain peace and harmony in the prison. If they had acquired the knowledge while in school, they would not have committed the acts. They would appreciate their differences and assisted each other in solving the conflicts between them.

Lastly, the main character, Derik and other characters would not have involved in criminal acts if they had information about the destiny model. The prison would not have become their destination. They could have avoided the passage of the indecent behavior to others like Danny who learned from his brother. The knowledge of the destiny model would have helped them evade many prejudices against other members of the society. The characters could have maintained unity that leads to peace and harmony among the members of the different cultures and ethnic groups.


In summary, the Destiny model has many advantages to all people regardless of their origin. It promotes peace, harmony, and unity in the society. With the application of the model, people stand high chances of maintaining unity among them. Therefore, every individual require awareness of the model to enhance peace and unity in the society.


Internet Movie Database. (2013). American History X (1998) Synopsis. Available on http//

Lau, J. Y. F. (2013). An introduction to critical thinking and creativity: Think more, think better. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Moore, W. E., & Little, W. W. (1967). Creative and critical thinking. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Washington, J. (2013). The Destiny Model: A Basis for Cross-Cultural Exchange in Education. Missouri: Springfield.</p

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